As global business continues to expand and bring everyone closer, the critical element of a successful business outcome may be the appreciation and respect for regional, country, and cultural differences - known as cultural diversity and requiring good intercultural communication. In these pages you will find a wealth of information and resources on international business etiquette and manners to utilize during your international travels and overseas assignments. In fact, you may want to print a copy to review during your next international flight.
References Social and cultural aspects of a society form its very nature. As "culture" is the essence of a society, this chapter will concentrate on a discussion of it only. Of all the so called "environmental uncontrollables", culture, or at least the study of it, is one of the most difficult to comprehend, take account of and harness to advantage.
This is particularly so when the product or service is "culture bound". This is particularly true of foodstuffs. Sadza in Zimbabwe, a staple food made from maize meal, would not go down well in Beverley Hills, California. Neither would Middle Eastern sheeps eyes menus.
Products of a more technical nature, like computers, on the other hand, have a universal appeal. However there is plenty of evidence to suggest that, with shrinking communications and with more people than ever travelling, even the most culture bound product or service can, and is, finding a world market niche.
So even the infamous Veldschoen footwear of the South African pioneers has found its way into most corners of the world. Chapter Objectives The objectives of this chapter are: Structure Of The Chapter The chapter begins by defining culture and its constituent elements.
The Uncertainty avoidance india hofstede then goes on to describe the various approaches to the study of culture and culminates with a study conducted by Hofstede which is one man's way of looking at culture's consequences.
The chapter emphasizes the need to study culture carefully as it can be a major source of failure in global marketing, if hot taken into account.
What is culture Much has been written on the subject of culture and its consequences. Whilst on the surface most countries of the world demonstrate cultural similarities, there are many differences, hidden below the surface.
One can talk about "the West", but Italians and English, both belonging to the so called "West", are very different in outlook when one looks below the surface.
The task of the global marketer is to find the similarities and differences in culture and account for these in designing and developing marketing plans.
Failure to do so can be disasterous. Terpstran9 has defined culture as follows: It is not, also innate, but learned.
Facets of culture are interrelated and it is shared by members of a group who define the boundaries. Often different cultures exist side by side within countries, especially in Africa. It is not uncommon to have a European culture, alongside an indigenous culture, say, for example, Shona, in Zimbabwe.
Culture also reveals itself in many ways and in preferences for colours, styles, religion, family ties and so on. The colour red is very popular in the west, but not popular in Islamic countries, where sober colours like black are preferred.
Much argument in the study of culture has revolved around the "standardisation" versus "adaption" question. In the search for standardisation certain "universals" can be identified. Murdock7 suggested a list, including age grading, religious rituals and athletic sport.
Levitt5 suggested that traditional differences in task and doing business were breaking down and this meant that standardisation rather than adaption is becoming increasingly prevalent.
Culture, alongside economic factors, is probably one of the most important environmental variables to consider in global marketing.
Culture is very often hidden from view and can be easily overlooked. Similarly, the need to overcome cultural myopia is paramount. Approaches to the study of culture Keegan3 suggested a number of approaches to the study of culture including the anthropological approach, Maslow's approach, the Self- Reference Criterion SRCdiffusion theory, high and low context cultures and perception.
There are briefly reviewed here. Anthropological approach Culture can be deep seated and, to the untrained can appear bizarre. The Moslem culture of covering the female form may be alien, to those cultures which openly flaunt the female form.
The anthropologist, though a time consuming process, considers behaviour in the light of experiencing it at first hand. In order to understand beliefs, motives and values, the anthropologist studies the country in question anthropology and unearths the reasons for what, apparently, appears bizarre.Published: Mon, 5 Dec This chapter is divided into two sections.
The first section defines culture, its importance in international business and the various cultural dimensions for working globally. The Workforce in Indian Organizations.
An Analysis Based Upon the Dimensions motivation of the workforce in Indian organizations. I think this choice of theme is as it is the case with high Uncertainty Avoidance countries (Hofstede, ).
Figure 3. Hofstede's Dimensions in India. This article reviews the literature on the contingency theory of management accounting since the review by the author.
It traces the expansion of this literature and critically outlines some of the major themes explored over this period. Doing Business in India: Learn the culture code.
Avantika Banerjee Uncategorized January 23, Uncertainty Avoidance Index: One thought on “ Doing Business in India: Learn the culture code ” Pingback: Hofstede’s Six dimensions | h What is Long Term Orientation according to Professor Geert Hofstede? The main point here is how Western cultures versus Eastern cultures are defined.
Examples of low uncertainty avoidance countries: USA; UK; India; China; Indonesia; Singapore. Uncertainty Avoidance Examples. If you’re only interested in getting some uncertainty avoidance examples, make sure to read this article (opens in a new window).