This was an essay designed to explain the similarities and differences on the French and American Revolutions. The French Revolution and American Revolution were the instances of civilians rebelling against their government. The French rebelled against their government in a violent manner, as did the Americans.
Vichy France was established after France surrendered to Germany on June 22,and took its name from the government's administrative center in Vichy, southeast of Paris. While officially neutral in the war, Vichy actively collaborated with the Nazis, including, to some degree, with their racial policies.
In fact, the civil jurisdiction of the Vichy government extended over the whole of metropolitan France, except for Alsace-Lorraine, a disputed territory which was placed under German administration though not formally annexed.
French civil servants in Bordeaux, such as Maurice Papon, or Nantes were under the authority of French ministers in Vichy. Some historians claim that the difficulties of communication across the demarcation line between the two zones, and the tendency of the Germans to exercise arbitrary power in the occupied zone, made it difficult for Vichy to assert its authority there.
Vichy continued to exercise jurisdiction over most of France until the collapse of the regime following the Allied invasion in June Until Augustthe Vichy regime was acknowledged as the official government of France by the United States and other countries, including Canada, which was at the same time at war with Germany.
Even the United Kingdom maintained unofficial contacts with Vichy for some time, until it became apparent that the Vichy Prime Minister Pierre Laval intended full collaboration with the Germans.
The Vichy government's claim to be the de jure French government was challenged by the Free French Forces of Charles de Gaulle, based first in London and later in Algiers, and French governments ever since have held that the Vichy regime was an illegal government run by traitors.
The main arguments advanced against Vichy's right to incarnate the continuity of the French state were based on the pressure exerted by Laval on deputies in Vichy, and on the absence of 27 deputies and senators who had fled on the Massilia ship and could thus not take part in the vote.
Within Vichy France, there was a low-intensity civil war between the French Resistance—drawn from the Communist and Republican elements of society—against the reactionary elements who desired a fascist or similar regime as in Francisco Franco 's Spain.
After the eight-month Phony War, the Germans launched their offensive in the west on 10 May Within days, it became clear that French forces were overwhelmed and that military collapse was imminent.
Government and military leaders, deeply shocked by the debacle, debated how to proceed. Many officials, including the Prime Minister, Paul Reynaud, wanted to move the government to French territories in North Africa, and continue the war with the French naval fleet and the resources of the French empire.
The latter view called for an immediate cessation of hostilities.
While this debate continued, the government was forced to relocate several times, finally reaching Bordeaux, in order to avoid capture by advancing German forces.
Communications were poor and thousands of civilian refugees clogged the roads. In these chaotic conditions, advocates of an armistice gained the upper hand and overwhelmed the resistance of those who wished to continue the war.
The Cabinet agreed on a proposal to seek armistice terms from Germany, with the understanding that, should Germany set forth dishonorable or excessively harsh terms, France would retain the option to continue to fight. In reality, this was probably a pretextual understanding. Once the government breached the psychological barrier of seeking terms from Germany, the armistice was virtually inevitable.
France's Armistice with Hitler France capitulated on 22 June The United States and the Soviet Union would not enter the war until Thus, the United Kingdom was left as the only world power at war with the Axis.
A separate agreement was reached with Italy, which had entered the war against France on 10 June, well after the outcome of the battle was beyond doubt. Hitler was motivated by a number of reasons to agree to the armistice. He feared that France would continue to fight from North Africa, and he wanted to ensure that the French navy was taken out of the war.
He could not know, of course, that the tide of opinion within the French government had turned decisively against this course of action. In addition, leaving a French government in place would relieve Germany of the considerable burden of administering French territory.The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
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FOREWORD. Since its first publication in the Brazilian cultural journal Catolicismo in , Revolution and Counter-Revolution has gone through a number of editions in Portuguese, English, French, Italian, and Spanish.. The present edition is the first to be published digitally in the United States.
The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian War of Independence or the Algerian Revolution (Arabic: الثورة الجزائرية Al-thawra Al-Jazaa'iriyya; Berber languages: Tagrawla Tadzayrit; French: Guerre d'Algérie or Révolution algérienne) was a war between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front (French: Front de Libération Nationale – FLN) from to