Scientists sometimes refer to these complex tangles of interactions as food webs. Predator species greatly impact their environments, whether in an urban park or large wilderness complex. Because they are animals that survive by preying on other organisms, they send ripples throughout the food web, regulating the effects other animals have on that ecosystem.
All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Abstract Human-carnivore conflicts challenge biodiversity conservation and local livelihoods, but the role of diseases of domestic animals in their predation by carnivores is poorly understood.
We conducted a human-leopard Panthera pardus conflict study throughout all 34 villages around Golestan National Park, Iran in order to find the most important conflict determinants and to use them in predicting the probabilities of conflict and killing of cattle, sheep and goats, and dogs. We found that the more villagers were dissatisfied with veterinary services, the more likely they were to lose livestock and dogs to leopard predation.
Dissatisfaction occurred when vaccination crews failed to visit villages at all or, in most cases, arrived too late to prevent diseases from spreading.
We suggest that increased morbidity of livestock makes them particularly vulnerable to leopard attacks. Moreover, conflicts and dog killing were higher in villages located closer to the boundaries of the protected area than in distant villages. Therefore, we appeal for improved enforcement and coordination of veterinary services in our study area, and propose several priority research topics such as veterinarian studies, role of wild prey in diseases of domestic animals, and further analysis of potential conflict predictors.
Introduction Human-wildlife conflicts over livestock predation, crop raiding or attacks on humans are relatively common and well documented [ 1 ]. Financial and social losses from conflicts can be significant, especially for poor communities with meager opportunities for alternative incomes, thus provoking hostile attitudes and persecution of culprit animals [ 2 ].
On the other hand, the species of concern include officially protected flagship and umbrella species e. In this case, conflicts challenge a balance between nature conservation and livelihoods and require tremendous long-term efforts to maintain or restore the integrity of the environment in socially acceptable ways [ 3 ].
Human-carnivore conflicts over predation on domestic animals are particularly well-known. Such conflicts depend on many factors such as densities of carnivores, wild prey and livestock, habitat and livestock characteristics, socio-economic conditions and husbandry practices [ 1 ], [ 4 — 5 ].
Surprisingly little empirical knowledge exists about the relationships between predation and diseases of domestic prey though diseases are among the major problems for animal husbandry throughout the world, especially in developing countries [ 6 — 11 ].
Predicting human-carnivore conflicts is an important practical task, though its development began only recently and diseases are not yet addressed as potential predictors [ 8 ], [ 15 — 17 ].
In the context of diseases and conflicts, the availability of true absence data i. It is easier to obtain absence data for conflicts than, for example, for a species especially if it is rare or mobile [ 18 ].
For this, it is just required to conduct sweeping surveys over all local settlements and to record where conflicts exist and where they do not.
In this case, the application of presence-only modeling approaches such as maximum entropy MaxEnt or ecological niche factor analysis ENFA is not justified and the presence-absence analysis should be used instead [ 18 ].
Moreover, presence-only models are prone to errors when their pseudo-absence records are inaccurate, i. When all local settlements are surveyed for conflicts, a presence-absence study transforms into a case-control study, which produces an absolute and most reliable probability of conflict in a given area [ 20 ].
In this paper, we provide the results of a case-control study of human-leopard Panthera pardus conflict in Iran. We describe the conflict pattern, estimate the effect of veterinary services and other variables on the conflict through predictive modeling, and discuss the practical aspects of the model output.
Ultimately, we consider conservation implications of this study and propose practical actions to mitigate the conflict. From west to east, elevations increase from m to m above sea level and precipitation decreases from mm to mm. The main landscape zones are lush humid temperate Hyrcanian forest in the west, steppe in the central part and semi-desert in the east, with the mean annual air temperature Local people belong to Turkmen and Persian ethnic groups.
They raise cattle, sheep and goats and keep dogs to guard livestock. Dogs are not specifically trained to protect livestock and local culture prohibits buying or selling dogs, including well-trained individuals of appropriate breeds.
Shepherds usually take larger dogs to accompany their stock, which, however, do not guarantee good protection. Human population, livestock numbers and holdings, and other characteristics of GNP villages are provided in S1 Table.
High-quality stud cattle graze inside villages, whereas other cattle and all sheep and goats move out into mountains and return to stay at night in pens. In June-July, cattle graze near villages on wheat stubble fields and stay away from gadflies swarming in dense vegetation, but later return to mountains after fields are tramped down in most places or converted into rice paddies some lowlands.Predators play a key role in maintaining the natural balance of ecosystems.
Given the delicate interdependent nature of the food chain, the laws of trophic cascades and seed distribution, predators cannot be eliminated without risking the larger ecosystem.
Killing off predators disrupts the balance of wildlife and their environment. The role of domestic animals on the predation of October 6, by Leave a Comment Also the role of domestic animals on the predation of including a list of animals a study on origins of the cold war which are or may be undergoing A review of ehrlichs population bomb the process of domestication an analysis of method of his madness in hamlet.
Predation was the most commonly reported impact of dogs on wildlife. An emerging and exciting conservation role for dogs is their growing use as “guardian animals” for wildlife. In some cases, dominant predators even kill and eat their competitors (termed “intraguild predation”). 4 These effects in turn impact the animals in the competitor’s food chain, which on the whole is an overlapping yet different set of animals than in the dominant predator’s food chain.
One of the most frequently studied dynamics. The role of predation in wildlife population dynamics. Pages in The Role of Predator Control as a Tool in Game Management.
Edited by T. F.
Ginnetr and S. E. Henke. Texas Agricultural Research and Extension Center. San Angelo. Texas. There is no doubt that feral cats play a major role in wildlife predation.
Because they are a non-native species, they can cause an unusual amount of damage to the natural ecosystems of Florida.