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By Phil Plait August 12, Over the course of three more years, we did it five more times. Despite the return of hundreds of kilos of rocks, thousands of pictures, and independent verification and authentication from dozens of countries some of which were and still are our enemiessome people stubbornly refuse to accept the fact that the Apollo Moon landings were real.
The basic idea is that when the astronauts left the Moon, they left behind several artifacts, including the base of the lunar module called the descent stage and the rovers for Apollo 15, 16, and The descent stages were a little over 4 meters wide the landing legs spread out were 9 meters across, but are narrow, so the bulk of the stage would be easier to see.
The rovers were about 3 meters long and 2 wide. Those numbers sound like you should be able to spot them with, say, Hubble.
The question here is one of resolution: As an example, a person standing next to you is easy to see and easily identifiable. But from a mile away that human is far more difficult to see, and from ten miles away is just a dot if that. There is a simple relationship between mirror size and resolving power: What does this mean?
An arcsecond is a measure of angular size how big an object appears to be — if two objects are the same physical size, the one farther away will appear smaller, and have a smaller angular size. There are arcseconds to a degree, and to give you an idea of how small a measure this is, the Moon is about 0.
D is the diameter of the mirror in centimeters. So what does this mean if you want to look at the lunar artifacts? Hey, wait a sec! It would have to be a lot bigger to be seen at all.
In other words, even a football stadium on the Moon would look like a dot to Hubble. But those objects are far, far larger than the Moon. So even if we built a colossal sports arena in Tycho crater, Hubble would barely see it at all. The landers, rovers, and other junk left on the lunar surface by the astronauts are totally invisible.
However, there are two tricks we can use here. One is to look not for the artifacts themselves, but for their shadows. At sunrise or sunset, the shadow from a lander might be long enough to detect, even if the lander itself is invisible.
However, this is a very tricky observation and has to be timed just right and the landscape itself may hide the shadow; crater rims, mountains, and natural dips and bumps might prevent sunlight from hitting the lander until the Sun is high in the sky, and that will shorten the shadows.
Plus, try to convince a committee in charge of hotly-contested and hugely over-subscribed telescopes to give you a night to try this and see how they react.
Good luck ever getting an observation again. The other method is obvious enough: Later this year we will be sending the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to the Moon, and it will be able to resolve objects as small as 0.
It will easily resolve the landers, and even the rovers.Volcano Watch Volcano Watch is a weekly article and activity update written by U.S. Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory scientists and colleagues.
The debris is still visible everywhere on the streets of Goma: check our photo essay on Goma. Nyiragongo and its (little) sister volcano Nyamuragira make up staggering 40% of Africa’s volcanic eruptions.
Nyiragongo volcano treks are considered safe for healthy travelers taking part in guided hikes. This is my last post for the Bad Astronomy Blog on Discover Magazine. As of today – Monday, November 12, – the blog has a new home at Slate magazine..
It has . Professionally written essays on this topic: Volcanic Eruption of Africa's Nyiragongo. Volcanic Eruption of Africa's Nyiragongo.
planning now for the next eruption of Mount Nyiragongo, the millions spent on reconstruction will be wasted" (Solana PG).
Relief Volcanic Eruption Causes and Effects. erupt again" (Different Types of Volcano). Our Word of the Year choice serves as a symbol of each year’s most meaningful events and lookup trends.
It is an opportunity for us to reflect on the language and ideas that represented each year. So, take a stroll down memory lane to remember all of our past Word of the Year selections. And, if.
|Did you find an essay you need?||They form when lava partially fills the crater or vent following an eruption, or when a new vent erupts for a period of weeks and creates a crater that then fills with lava. Io is said to be the most geologically active body in our solar system and it is covered in hundreds of volcanic regions, mostly covered by sulfur and sulfur dioxide.|
|mount Essays Sample & Examples||March 01,|
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