Stepping reflexstep-up reflex: Parachute reflex the infant is suspended by the trunk and suddenly lowered as if falling for an instant. The child spontaneously throws out the arms as a protective mechanism.
Statistics for emergency department visits are equally shocking. This child health issue is pervasive and touches the lives of families in all income levels and all racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, and cultural groups. The Society of Pediatric Psychology has long incorporated child injury prevention into its mission, training goals, and scholarship.
In fact, in an effort to identify ways to address child unintentional injury as a child health priority, a society task force was formed in the early s to review the current state of the field and make recommendations for future research to enhance prevention efforts Finney et al.
One noteworthy insight that emerges when applying an historic lens is that remarkably similar themes appear across the special issues, the task force report, and the publications in the current special section.
More recently, an additional theme in the broader field of pediatric psychology has emerged and also applies to the childhood injury area: Below, we elaborate on each of these four themes and discuss how they are reflected in the contributions to this special issue.
We conclude with suggestions for future prevention-focused research in the field. Although it is clear from epidemiological data that unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death across all stages of development throughout childhood i.
For young children, most injuries occur in the home. In fact, caregiver supervision defined by attention, proximity, continuity; Gitanjali et al.
The research reported in this special issue by Morrongiello et al. They found that Introduction to children s developmental psychology children to peer-communicated social norms encouraging cautiousness reduced injury-risk behaviors in recreational settings.
Theory Surprisingly, theory-driven research in the area of childhood injury is uncommon. Hence, it is noteworthy that a few of the current articles assimilate theoretical constructs to some extent.
In the article by Miller, Azar, Stevenson, and Johnsonthey test a social-information processing model to determine what factors increase the risk that caregivers will provide inadequate supervision.
Comparing mothers of preschoolers who had neglect histories poor supervision with those who did not, they found that having unreasonable expectations and maladaptive beliefs about injuries e. Moreover, social-information processing factors predicted having maladaptive beliefs.
Integrating individual risk factors to create models that elucidate processes that operate to predict risk outcomes can greatly advance the field, and more of this type of research is sorely needed. Morrongiello, Seasons, et al. Consistent with the theory, the research demonstrates that exposing children to peer-communicated behavioral norms predicts behavioral intentions and reductions in risk behaviors during childhood.
When placed in the context of past research, which demonstrates similar social norm influences in adolescence and adulthood e. Now the challenging task for the field is to determine how to translate this knowledge and create effective prevention programs and strategies.
Importantly, we see this increasingly being done in this special issue: Morrongiello, Hou, et al. In addition to drawing on empirical studies elucidating risk factors, effective prevention strategies also often capitalize on basic scientific theory concerning child development and health behavior change.
Interventions might be focused on changing child behavior Morrongiello, Seasons, et al. The manuscript by Morrongiello, Seasons, et al. Recognizing increased risk for injury among children with poor impulse control and high sensation-seeking, especially when they are in a state with an elevated positive mood, Morrongiello, Seasons, et al.
Consistent with these theories, she found that exposing children to messaging aimed at creating the perception of a social norm against risk taking was effective to reduce their recreational risk taking, especially when children were in an aroused positive mood state. Vulnerable Populations As in many areas of pediatric psychology, there are substantial health disparities in child injury risk.
A large portion of the data in the child injury research literature has been collected from Caucasian participants in North America, Australia, and Western Europe Lescano et al. This is an important contribution because child injury rates show a significant income gradient, whereby lower income families constitute the highest risk injury group.
Consistent with research on supervision in middle- and upper-income families, Damashek and Corlis found that reduced proximal supervision increased the frequency and severity of injuries in children 1—5 years of age. Also in this special issue, Slemaker and colleagues describe the results of a study supporting the use of home safety intervention to reduce hazards in the homes of Spanish-speaking Latino families.
Both papers highlight the commonalities between vulnerable North American populations and previous results, but also illustrate the need for culturally and socioeconomically specific considerations. Also represented in this special issue is emerging scholarly interest in global child injury prevention.
It seems imperative that we extend effective prevention strategies from high-income countries to the rest of the world, and that we explore culturally and geographically specific injury risks and mechanisms to identify behavioral strategies to reduce injury incidents globally.
Shen and colleagues broach this topic in this special issue, conducting a systematic review of behavioral interventions to reduce child dog bites and then highlighting the fact that pediatric dog bites are more common in low- and middle-income countries of the world, but that 11 of the 12 intervention studies included in the systematic review were conducted in four high-income countries Australia, Canada, United States, and United Kingdom.Piaget’s Cognitive Development Stages Sensori-motor Ages birth - 2: the infant uses his senses and motor abilities to understand the world Preoperation Ages the child uses metal representations of objects and is able to use symbolic thought and language Concrete operations Ages ; the child uses logical operations or principles when.
As this article has shown, children continue to grow and to change in amazing ways as they move from toddlerhood to school-age. During the Preoperational stage, between ages 2 to 7 years, young children continue to grow taller as their bodies take on more adult proportions.
Developmental Psychology. Chapter 6: Middle Childhood. Search for: Introduction to Middle Childhood. Learning Objectives. Objectives: At the end of this lesson, you will be able to. Describe physical growth during middle childhood. Evaluate the impact of labeling on children’s self-concept and social relationships.
Child Observation Paper Human Growth and Development Observational Study of a Child's Behavior Ricardo M.
Yslas Chesapeake College Abstract The objective of this observational study is to see how different children act around others and how past psychologists theories work in conjunction with the subject being analyzed. Daniel Swingley.
Professor. Director of Undergraduate Studies.
AB, Cognitive Science, Brown University and Queen's College Oxford; Development in children's interpretation of pitch cues to emotions. Courses Taught: PSYC Introduction to Psychology PSYC Cognitive Development (undergraduate) PSYC Individual. “A child psychologist is a type of psychologist who studies the mental, social and emotional development of children,” states rutadeltambor.com’s Kendra Cherry, a former psychosocial rehabilitation specialist and author of The Everything Psychology Book, 2nd Edition.